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Disputed Territories

Coal Markets:

Disputed Territories

Not disputing their legal status and international recognition, we provide coalmining data and analysis for the following territories:


A large coal basin - Tkvarcheli - is located there; it was discovered in the XIX century, while coal extraction was started in the 1930s. It was one of the main sources for coking coal in the USSR at the WWII period (when Donbass was occupied with the Nazi). After WWII its significance as coking coal source declined (due to launch of Kuzbass basin in Russia) and the coal was used as fuel in Tkvarcheli power plant. A large coal-washing facility was built there.

Tkvarcheli coal basin is presented with coal of G and Zh grades, including high-quality coal suitable for coking. Currently one open pit mine operates in Jiget deposit; the mine is managed with Abkhaz-Turkish Tamsaş company.

Currently Tkvarcheli coal-fired power plant doesn't produce energy; Abkhazia produces 100% of its energy in Ingura hydropower plant. There are no crude steel mills in the area and thus Abkhazia has no demand in coking coal. Having no coal consumers inside Abkhazia, Tamsaş exports 100% of coal in Turkey.


A large coal basin - Kosovo lignite basin (with geological reserves in 8-9 bln tons) - is located there.

100% of coal is being extracted in surface (open pit) mines, from which two mines - "Belachevatz" and "Dobro Selo" - are the largest ones. They supply thermal coal to area's power plants "Kosovo A" and "Kosovo B".

There are no crude steel mills in the area and thus Kosovo doesn't import coking coal or coke.


A large bituminous coal deposit - Megavuz - has been recently discovered in Mardakert area of Nagorno-Karabakh.

They need foreign investments to build a coalmine and washing plant in the newly discovered deposit, but due to the disputed status of Nagorno-Karabakh large investors do not want to risk.

There are no large thermal power plants in Nagorno-Karabakh, and almost 100% of energy is being produced with hydropower plants; thus Nagorno-Karabakh has no demand in steam coal now - however the Megavuz coal project assumes construction of a coal-fired thermal power plant there.

There are no crude steel mills in the area and thus Nagorno-Karabakh doesn't import coking coal or coke.

South Ossetia

South Ossetia is poor in natural resources, including coal - it has no actual coalmines now; at the Soviet period they did geological survey for coal in the area, but after 1991 the work was stopped and now there are no coal commercial reserves in South Ossetia.

South Ossetia almost not uses coal as fuel (it's supplied with natural gas from Russia) so it import a very low volume of steam coal from Russia.

There are no crude steel mills in the area and thus South Ossetia doesn't import coking coal or coke.


The area's thermal plants and boilers utilize natural gas and thus it imports a very low volume of thermal coal (mainly from Ukraine).

A single crude steel producer (Moldova Steel Works) utilizes EAF/scrap technology and uses small volume of coke as additive; the mill has no coke-chemical workshop and thus doesn't import coking coal - but it buys Ukraine's coke.

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