Eurasian Coal Market at a Glance
This is the short overview of the Eurasian coal market, while detailed figures and in-depth analytics may be easily found in our country "coalmining" reports. Currently we provide such reports for any of 21 countries producing coal, as well as for Belarus, Croatia, and one of the disputed territories (Abkhazia). Coal markets in the Baltic states are analyzed in a single report.
Currently 21 Eurasian countries (of total 30) produce 910 mln metric tons of bituminous, sub-bituminous coal and lignite.
Russia is the leading coal producer in the area - with 300 mln metric tons of coal production, or 33% of the total coalmining in Eurasia (Figures 1 and 2).
Two countries - Poland and Kazakhstan - produce more than 100 mtpa each, while Ukraine, Turkey and Czech Republic produce more than 50 mtpa each. This group of five large coalmining countries holds 51% in Eurasian coal production (Figures 1 and 2).
Six mid-size coalmining countries (Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, and Hungary) - each producing in 10-50 mtpa range - hold 14% in Eurasian coal production (Figures 1 and 2).
Nine small coalmining countries (each produces less than 10 mtpa) hold only 2% in total output (Figures 1 and 2). And 10 countries currently do not produce coal at all.
Figure 1. Coal production in Eurasia
Figure 2. Share in Eurasia's coal production
Ten coalmining countries export their coal to neighboring countries and more distant locations. Russia is Eurasia's largest and the world's third largest coal exporter; in 2009 it exported 98 mtpa of coal (Figure 3).
Kazakhstan, Poland, Czech Republic and Ukraine are also active in coal export, however they together export less coal than Russia alone (Figure 3). Other five countries totally export only 1.6 mln tons of coal.
Figure 3. Coal export
In average 17% of the coal extracted in Eurasia is being exported - both inside and outside Eurasia (Figure 4). Two Eurasian countries may be called as "export-oriented": Russia exports 33% of its coal, and Kazakhstan - 27%. Other countries have a less percentage of export in coal production.
Figure 4. Export in % to coal production
Almost all countries in Eurasia (except Mongolia) import coal. Turkey, Russia and Poland are the largest importers in volume terms (Figure 5); however their dependence on coal import is not critical: Turkey self-supplies 81% of the coal demand, Russia - 91%, and Poland - 93% (Figure 6).
Mongolia uses 100% of the coal domestically and doesn't import coal. In 12 countries more than 90% of the coal demand is satisfied with domestic supply; 5 countries have self-supply level between 75% and 90%, while 3 - in 25-50% range. Nine non-producing countries have 100% import dependence in coal (Figure 6).
Of course these figures refer to "total demand" - while there may be quite different self-supply levels in steam and coking coal; for instance such countries as Albania, Serbia or Bulgaria have high total level of self-supply from 85% in Bulgaria to 98% in Albania), but at the same time they have 100% import dependence in coking coal, i.e. they self-supply refers exclusively to steam coal (presented mainly with lignite).
Figure 5. Coal import
Figure 6. Self-supply with coal (domestic supply in % to demand)
You may find more figures and analytics on Eurasian coal markets in our country "coalmining" reports. Currently we provide such reports for any of 21 countries producing coal, as well as for Belarus, Croatia, and one of the disputed territories (Abkhazia). Coal markets in the Baltic states are analyzed in a single report.